Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) AND Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is EDS?

Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a collection of rare genetic disorders that damage the connective tissue of the body’s joints and ligaments. Connective tissues are found in the skin, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, internal organs, and bones, giving structural support.

What Is ADHD?

It is one of the most widespread mental problems affecting children, and it is also known as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD affects a large number of adults as well. Inattention (inability to maintain concentration), hyperactivity (an excessive movement that is not appropriate for the environment), and impulsivity are all symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (hasty acts that occur at the moment without thought).

ADHD affects 8.6 percent of children and 2.6 percent of adults, according to estimates. Adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed when it causes disruptions in the classroom or difficulties with schoolwork. It can also have an impact on grownups. It occurs more often in boys than in girls.

Linking ADHD and EDS /HSD

Psychological dysfunction is common in EDS / HSD:

Potential explanations in the EDS and ADHD association:

  1. Dysautonomia (disordered autonomic function) – Association with orthostatic intolerance
  2. Impaired proprioception, impacting co-ordination – Diversion of attention onto motor activity
  3. Chronic pain, diverting energy and attention
  4. Convergence Insufficiency
  5. Shared underlying genetic/environmental risk

Particular Challenges of having ADHD and EDS

  1. Diagnosis and differentiation of symptoms
  2. Significant mental health burden associated with both impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors (of ADHD) increases the chance of musculoskeletal injuries
  3. ADHD impairs the ability to manage optimally
  4. EDS and ADHD can result in poor medication adherence
  5. Substance often associated with ADHD can negatively impact the management of EDS
  6. Significant stigma and a lack of knowledge by health professionals
  7. Under-resourcing and deficiencies in service provision
  8. High rates of tolerability issues with medications

More about ADHD

Symptoms and Diagnosis of ADHD

Numerous symptoms of ADHD, such as excessive movement, trouble keeping still for extended periods of time, and short attention spans, are frequent in children of all ages, including young children. The difference between children with ADHD and other children is that their hyperactivity and inattention are notably more substantial than expected for their age, resulting in distress and difficulties functioning at home, school, or friends and family.

ADHD can be classified into three types: inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, or combining the two. A diagnosis is made based on the symptoms that have manifested themselves over the previous six months.

People living with ADHD experience the following symptoms, which occur regularly:

  • While at school or working, the student does not pay close attention to details and makes casual blunders.
  • Has difficulty maintaining concentration on tasks or activities, such as during lectures, talks, or long periods of reading or writing.
  • Does not adhere to directions and does not complete schooling, household chores, or job responsibilities (may start tasks but quickly loses focus).
  • Has difficulty planning and arranging chores and labor (for instance, does not manage time well; has messy, disorganized work; misses deadlines).
  • Has a strong aversion or hate for tasks that involve persistent mental effort, such as creating reports and filling out paperwork.
  • Constantly misplaces items that are necessary for tasks or everyday life, such as school papers, books, keys, wallet, mobile phone, and eyeglasses.
  • It is possible to become easily sidetracked.
  • He or she loses track of regular activities such as doing chores and running errands. Phone calls may go unanswered by older teens and adults, and bills may go unpaid, or appointments may not be kept.

Individuals with hyperactive/impulsive type tend to exhibit at least six (or five for those over seventeen years old) of the following symptoms regularly:

  • Fumbles with or taps their hands or feet or squirms in the seat.
  • Unable to maintain one’s position (in the classroom, workplace).
  • They run around or climb in places where it is not proper.
  • Unable to engage in leisure activities in complete silence.
  • Constantly “on the go,” as though propelled by a motor.
  • For example, you may complete people’s sentences or be unable to wait to respond in a conversation if you blurt out an answer before the question has been fully answered.
  • Has difficulty waiting for their turn, such as standing in a line at the grocery store.
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others’ activities (for example, cutting into talks, games, or activities, or starting to use other people’s belongings without their permission).
  • Is impolite or disrespectful to others. Teens and adults of a certain age may take over what others are doing.

There is presently no laboratory test available to identify attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is necessary to gather information from parents, teachers, and others, complete checklists, and have a medical evaluation performed (including vision and hearing screenings) to rule out any underlying medical difficulties in a kid. The symptoms are not caused by the person’s disobedience or angry behavior, nor is it caused by their failure to comprehend a task or orders.

The Root Causes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)

Scientists have not yet determined the exact causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. There is evidence to suggest that genetics play a role in ADHD. For example, three out of every four children who have ADHD have a relative who also has the condition. Being born prematurely, suffering a brain injury, and the mother smoking, consuming alcohol, or experiencing high stress during pregnancy are all factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD in children.

Treatment

ADHD and the School-Aged Child

The information provided by teachers and school personnel to parents and doctors can aid in evaluating behavior and learning problems and implementing behavioral training programs. On the other hand, school personnel is not permitted to diagnose ADHD, make treatment decisions, or mandate that a pupil take medication to attend school. Only parents and guardians have the authority to make those decisions in consultation with the child’s physician.

Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have difficulty learning may be eligible for special education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or a Section 504 plan (for children who do not require special education) under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 on their circumstances. Teachers can help children with ADHD by providing study skills instruction, making changes to the classroom arrangement, employing alternate teaching strategies, and creating a modified curriculum.

Adults with ADHD

Many adults with ADHD are entirely unaware that they have the condition. The study of past and current symptoms and a medical examination and history are all part of a complete evaluation, including the use of adult rating scales or checklists. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two. Strategies for behavior control, such as methods to reduce distractions and promote structure and organization and incorporate direct family members, might be beneficial in some cases.

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